Skip to Main Content

APA 7 Style Guide: References: Electronic Sources

A guide to using APA style in writing research papers

Citing Webpages

On your References page, list all your sources alphabetically by author name, according to the pattern shown here.  Use a hanging indent!  For online journal or periodical articles, see the "Journal Articles" tab.

Content on a website that is not a periodical:

Use this format: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from https://Web address

Find as much of the necessary information as you can.  If there is no date given, use n. d. for 'no date.'

Allan, P. (2017, January 19). Three effective techniques for climbing a rope. Retrieved December 3, 2018, from

Legal Services of Northern California. (2018, February 2). Using CalFresh EBT benefits. Retrieved December 3, 2018, from

Home Science Tools. (n.d.).  How to make a lava lamp: DIY lava lamp experiment.  Retrieved from

Newspaper article:

Debolt, D. (2018, Nov. 26). 'A busy time ahead of us': Butte College students return to campus, 18 days after fire.  Chico Enterprise-Record. Retrieved from

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Chapter or section from a web document:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from

Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewriting Engine. In Apache HTTP Server version 1.3 documentation (Apache modules). Retrieved from

Ebook from a database:

Bouson, J. B. (2000). Quiet as it’s kept : shame, trauma, and race in the novels of Toni Morrison. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. Retrieved from

Ebook from a Kindle or other device:

  • You must either provide a DOI (digital object identifier) number, or the place where you downloaded the book, in place of publisher information.

Stoker, B. (1897). Dracula [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from

Data sets, in print or graphic form:

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from

Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. (2007). [Graph illustration the SORCE Spectral Plot May 8, 2008]. Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. Retrieved from spectra.ion

Blog post:

Do not include the title of the blog; simply include the post title and the URL.  If the author's real name is not available, use the author's screen name.

L. Drusus. (2018, November 21).  First Celtic chariot burial found in Wales [web log comment].  Retrieved from

Online video:

Use this format: Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from

PBSoffbook. (2013, October 3). How to be creative [Video file]. Retrieved from

Green, H. (2018, December 2). 5 Scientists with Ideas That Nobody Believed ... Who Were Right. (SciShow, Ed.). Retrieved from

Podcast (audio or video):

McElroy, J., & McElroy, S. (2018, November 9).  Jilly Juice. Sawbones Podcast.  Podcast retrieved from

Scott, D. (Producer). (2007, January 5). The community college classroom [Episode 7]. Adventures in Education. Podcast retrieved from

Online discussion post: 

Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25]. Message posted to

Email, personal communications, personal interviews:

Emails and other personal correspondence are not listed on the References page.  Simply cite them parenthetically in your main text (B. Smith, personal communication, November 25 2017).

APA Handbook

Find more help!

Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) has an excellent online style guide.  Take a look for more help!

Want to try a new, free software tool to build your bibliography?  MyBib is the best tool we've seen for building and keeping a list of citations.  It's easy to use and lets you switch between several styles.  Try it out at