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MLA Style Guide (8th edition): Works Cited: Audio and Video

Quick reference guide to MLA style: how to do in-text citations and Works Cited page

Citing audio or visual materials

On your Works Cited page, list all your sources alphabetically by author name, according to the pattern shown here.  A song or TV episode is in quotation marks, while the album title or TV show name is italicized.  Use a hanging indent!

A song or music album:

Rae Morris. “Skin.” Cold, Atlantic Records, 2014.

Beyoncé. “Pray You Catch Me.” Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016,

Nirvana. "Smells Like Teen Spirit." Nevermind, Geffen, 1991.

A music video:

If possible, find your music video at the band's YouTube channel, website, or whatever official outlet is available.  If not, take what you can get, but be sure to look up accurate information about the date and publisher; you might have to look elsewhere to find that.

Beyoncé. "Spirit." The Lion King: The Gift, Walt Disney Pictures, 2019.  YouTube,    /civgUOommC8?si=gNpxi7D0nDl6cugl

A TV or radio show:

Much depends on the source of the show: was it recorded or broadcast?  If the show is on DVD, give the title of the DVD so that readers can find it.  If the show is on Netflix or another streaming service, show that.  If the show was broadcast on a particular date and that's the relevant information, include the date.  If you wish to reference a particular episode, include the season and episode number.

  • DVD:

"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season, written by Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen, directed by Kevin Bright, Warner Brothers, 2004.

  • Broadcast:

"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox, WXIA, Atlanta, 19 Jul. 1998.

  • Streaming:

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix,

A film:

List films by title, and then give the director's name.  If you wish to emphasize certain performances, include those names as well.

Speed Racer. Directed by Lana Wachowski and Lilly Wachowski, Warner Brothers, 2008.

Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope.  Directed by George Lucas, performances by Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, and Carrie Fisher, Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.

A speech, lecture, or conference talk:

Give the speaker's name and the event.  Describe what the speech was: a lecture, a keynote address, a workshop, etc.

Stein, Bob. “Reading and Writing in the Digital Era.” Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and Writing Conference, 23 May 2003, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. Keynote Address.

A podcast:

“Best of Not My Job Musicians.” Wait Wait…Don’t Tell Me! from NPR, 4 June 2016,

MLA Handbook

Find more help

Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) has an excellent online style guide.  Take a look for more help!

Want to try a new, free software tool to build your bibliography?  MyBib is the best tool we've seen for building and keeping a list of citations.  It's easy to use and lets you switch between several styles.  Try it out at